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Encounters with d/Deaf children and adults who have a chronic physical, emotional, or developmental condition are increasingly frequent according to 2,600 interpreters who responded to a 2014 NCIEC practitioner needs assessment survey. Respondents also indicated that the incidence of idiosyncratic or dysfluent language among d/Deaf individuals with whom they work has increased. Asked to rank a list of possible focuses for future professional development, respondents ranked working with Deaf Plus individuals and individuals with idiosyncratic or dysfluent language among the top three most important needs. It should be no surprise that also among the top three was working in Deaf Interpreter/Hearing Interpreter (DI/HI) teams.
So, what is available to support interpreters’ professional development in the area of DI/HI team practice? All of the below resources are offered free of charge for your use. (NB: Some resources require registration.)


This page is filled with resources related to Deaf Interpreter practice developed over the past few decades. Resources include articles, research papers, books, and videos.

This report presents the findings of six focus groups conducted by the NCIEC Deaf Interpreter Work Team to gather the perspectives of certified and non-certified working Deaf Interpreters from across the United States on current issues and future directions in the field of Deaf Interpreting. Several themes emerged from the analysis of the discussions: formative experiences of Deaf Interpreters, professional standards and expectations, formal preparation of Deaf Interpreters, and employment issues. The report synthesizes the focus group discussions around these themes and recommends areas for further study and future action.

This report contains the findings of a research project undertaken by the NCIEC Deaf Interpreter Work Team in December 2007. The scope of the project was to invite a group of Deaf Interpreter Educators to respond to an online survey and to participate in a focus group about issues related to Deaf Interpreting. In total, twelve Deaf interpreting educators participated in the process. The research is one of the many activities undertaken by the Deaf Interpreter Initiative of the NCIEC to engage processes that would provide current evidence about Deaf Interpreter practice in the United States.

An analysis of data collected through an online national survey of certified and non-certified Deaf Interpreters during the spring of 2007. The report offers an analysis of demographics, work environments, consumers, language demands, and professional development needs and aspirations. A profile of the Deaf Interpreter is offered based on the findings and recommendations are made for further study and action.

Based on the unique competencies required of the Deaf interpreter, the curriculum is designed for use in interpreting education programs and community-based forums. The NCIEC Deaf Interpreter Curriculum consists of six modules arranged in sequential order. Appendices include the Deaf interpreter competencies, worksheets, presentation slides, a glossary, and a comprehensive listing of resources.

Twelve Deaf Interpreters completed the NCIEC Train-the-Trainer workshops and are now available to provide DI Curriculum trainings. Feel free to contact them about hosting trainings in your area or for insights into how to apply the curriculum within your program or community forum.

Check this page regularly for information on upcoming DI trainings held by NCIEC-trained Trainers.

This module was designed for integration into your learning environment. All the content is available as PDFs, which can be downloaded and inserted in your institution’s Learning Management System such as Blackboard, Moodle, etc., or applied in face-to-face training venues.


Prepared initially as the focus of the 2014 Institute for Legal Interpreting (ILI), Highly Effective Court Interpreting Teams in Action Videos and Workbook were designed to engage practitioners in the analysis and application of practices and protocol associated with Deaf-hearing interpreting teams working in legal settings. They focus on the work of four teams interpreting different aspects of a child custody civil proceeding. The videos and associated workbook activities include preparation for interpreting the different aspects of the proceeding, interpreting expert testimony, interpreting Deaf witness testimony, using consecutive interpreting and note taking, and interfacing with court personnel as part of the management of the interpreting process.

Created through a collaboration of the NCIEC Deaf Interpreter and Legal Interpreting work teams, this DVD provides a demonstration of collaborated interpretation involving two certified interpreters, one who is Deaf and one who is not, working in a (mock) court proceeding. While not intended as a model interpretation, practicing and aspiring interpreters will find much to consider, analyze, and discuss in this demonstration. An interview with the interpreters and discussion questions are provided.

Narrated by Deaf Interpreter and educator Eileen Forestal, this production demonstrates the dynamics between a Deaf interpreter and an ASL-English interpreter working as a team. The team is shown interacting in pre-conference discussion, interpreting a meeting between a school admissions counselor and a Deaf Russian gentleman who is not yet fluent in ASL, and debriefing in a post-conference session. The 31-minute DVD was a conjoint project of three Regional Interpreter Education Projects funded by the U.S. Department of Education Rehabilitation Services Administration from 2000-2005. Closed-captioned.

The DVD material includes unrehearsed interpreted situations and discussions that demonstrate the work of a Deaf/hearing interpreting team. The material highlights the work of the Deaf/hearing interpreting team in a mental health setting, and includes pre-conference discussions and post-conference discussions between the Deaf/hearing interpreting team. Samples are presented of how the Deaf/hearing interpreting team conducts pre-conference meetings with both the counselor and with the client separately before the mental health session begins. Also presented is the mental health session between the counselor and client working with the Deaf/hearing interpreting team.

This production includes unrehearsed interpreted situations and discussions demonstrating examples of a Deaf interpreter’s work, including the work of a Deaf/hearing interpreting team. The material includes an introduction to Deaf interpreting and Deaf/hearing interpreting teamwork, an interview with the Deaf and hearing interpreter team, and samples of various interpretation scenarios.

These vignettes demonstrate the complexity of the work of trilingual interpreters and Deaf/hearing trilingual interpreting teams. The vignettes also provide educational source material for educators, mentors, and students. The videos include trilingual interpreters at work in the following settings: Social Services, Adult Classroom, Video Relay Services (VRS), and a Parent-Teacher Conference.

These videos capture authentic scenarios that occur within the context of Vocational Rehabilitation settings. The six titles include “Stories from Life Experiences,” “Deaf Professionals in Action,” “A Vocational Evaluation,” “Setting a Vocational Goal,” “A VR Staff Meeting,” and “Support in the Job Search.” Each video offers 20 to 60 minutes of text involving VR Deaf, DeafBlind, and hard of hearing consumers, Deaf Professionals working in the VR context, and other VR professionals. The texts can be viewed with or without an interpreter and with or without captions.

This is a lively discussion among a panel of Deaf Interpreter (DI) trainers on the content and promise of the newly unveiled DI Curriculum. The panelists discuss the rationale for a distinctive curriculum for preparing Deaf interpreters, plans for implementation, and where you can find information that will help you take advantage of this resource.
The NCIEC would like to assist you in applying or adapting these resources for your teaching or interpreting practice.
Moreover, if you are already successfully using any of these resources in your teaching practice, we want to hear from you! Please contact


The National Interpreter Education Center (NIEC) director, Cathy Cogen, will retire on September 30, 2015, the final day of the current five-year cycle. We would like to thank Cathy for the many years of outstanding work she has contributed to our field and community. Her successor will be Trudy Schafer, current NIEC Project Coordinator, starting October 1, 2015.
The University of Northern Colorado (UNC) MARIE Center is happy to announce, effective Monday, August 24th, 2015, the hiring of Amy Williamson (MA, CI, CT, SC:L, ED:K-12) to serve as the Legal Interpreting Programs Coordinator. In this role, she will provide the oversight and lead instruction for the 4-semester, online Legal Interpreting Training Certificate Program (LITP) and Court Interpreting Induction Program, as well as coordination of specialized training events that will be implemented in each of the NCIEC regions during Year 6.
The National Consortium centers are funded from 2010-2015 by the U.S. Department of Education Rehabilitation Services Administration, CFDA #84.160A and 84.160B.