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Copyright © 2014 by the Conference of Interpreter Trainers. Published by the Conference of Interpreter Trainers. All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the Conference of Interpreter Trainers. The Conference of Interpreter Trainers (CIT) is a professional association of interpreter educators.
CIT Board of Directors          
Executive Board
Leslie Greer
Vice President
Jimmy Beldon
Richard Laurion
Cindy Volk
Communication and Technology
Windell “Wink” Smith
Jessica Bentley-Sassaman
Professional Development
Carole Lazorisak
Public Relations and Outreach
Samond Bishara
Research and Publications
Kimberly Hale

Mission Statement

CIT’s purpose is to encourage the preparation of interpreters who can effectively negotiate interpreted interactions within the wider society in which Deaf people live. As such, one of our primary goals is to increase our students’ knowledge concerning the Deaf community, Deaf peoples’ linguistic rights and our role in the preservation of ASL. CIT seeks to accomplish its mission by fostering teaching practices and research that help educate compassionate, engaged professional interpreters who will exhibit cultural and linguistic fluency, sophisticated interactional competencies and who are sensitive to issues of privilege. We also seek to advance teaching practices that lead to a deepening of cross-cultural awareness and to guide students to interpreting practices that are based in the norms and values embraced by the Deaf community by providing arenas for the sharing of these ideas.
Adopted 2013


To the authors, it has been a pleasure working with each and every one of you. We are grateful for your patience during the process. With your help, we have truly captured our roots, which will enable all us to have a much stronger future. We look forward to seeing where this journey takes us. Although we did not receive any papers submitted in ASL for this proceedings, we look forward to future proceedings published in both English and ASL.
Danielle I. J. Hunt
Gallaudet University
Sarah Hafer
Western Oregon University

Table of Contents

Wednesday, October 29

  1. Where are we? Back to our roots as we move forward in an evolving world

Kathy Jankowski                                                                                                          12

Thursday, October 30, 2014

  1. ASL-centric teaching: More than just having good ASL

Austin Andrews                                                                                                           15
Do you teach… in ASL? If you educate Deaf students, hearing ASL students, interpreting students, or give workshops to interpreters – in ASL –then this workshop is for you! How many ASL presentations, workshops and videos have left you shaking your head, thinking, “That’s SOOO not Deaf-friendly”? As you know, teaching effectively – in ASL – requires much more than just ‘having good ASL’; it requires different techniques and tools centering on the strengths of ASL. Join the presenter (Austin) and fellow workshop attendees in sharing real-world techniques and tools that will take your teaching to the next level!
In this highly interactive workshop, you’ll see how specific techniques and tools can enhance the ASL-centric nature of your teaching, whether your learners are youths or adults, Deaf or hearing!

  1. Visual-spatial literacy: Are we teaching the essential skills?

Patricia Lessard                                                                                                            17
This paper explores the struggles inherent in working with visual and spatial information. It will describe how they are present as second-language learners attempt to become ‘literate’ speakers of ASL. It will define visual and spatial literacy, what it entails, and its pervasiveness. It will also outline its impact on the fields of ASL and ASL-English interpreter education. It will present key concepts, definitions and research findings to inform the discussion on why students struggle with the development of their visual and spatial skills. In addition, it will offer insights and suggestions for the creation of curricular materials that will mitigate student struggles and foster visual-spatial skill development. Lastly, it will offer resources for educators to incorporate into their current or future classroom materials.
Keywords: Visual and spatial literacy, spatial reasoning, figure-ground relationships, mental rotation, mental operations, transformations

  1. Educational interpreting boot camp: Intensive mentoring outcomes

Jessica Bentley-Sassaman, Sue Ann Houser, and Brian Morrison                                          31
This project was established to address the need to increase the number of qualified educational interpreters in the state of Pennsylvania. State law requires interpreters working in an educational K-12 setting to have earned a minimum of a 3.5 on the Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment. The Boot Camp focused on providing targeted skill development led by two instructors from two of the state’s Interpreting Programs, and intensive one-on-one time with a trained mentor. This Boot Camp was funded through the Pennsylvania Department of Education’s Bureau of Special Education for two years, 2012 and 2013. The goal of this paper is to provide information on how similar Boot Camps can be replicated in other states to assist in bridging the gap from graduation to meeting the state standards for educational interpreters.
Keywords: Boot camp, mentors, mentees, educational interpreter performance assessment

  1. Gatekeeping in ASL-English interpreter education programs: Assessing the suitability of students for professional practice

Danielle I. J. Hunt and Brenda Nicodemus                                                                        44
Over the past two decades, educational programs in disciplines including medicine, nursing, social work, dentistry, psychology, and occupational therapy have begun to assess their students’ fitness to practice in the profession. In what ways can interpreter education programs assess and guide students who do not behave in accordance with values and norms of the profession or the Deaf community? If guidance is not successful, how do departments decide that a student’s pattern of behavior is potentially harmful to future consumers? This paper addresses one attempt to operationalize the dimensions of personal and professional suitability with guidelines that are sufficiently concrete and specific. We begin by providing background into the history of gatekeeping in human service education programs and the responsibilities of postsecondary institutions in this role. We outline the process of establishing a Student Code of Professional Conduct within our department at Gallaudet University. Finally, we discuss gatekeeping in relation to ASL-English interpreter education programs in general.
Keywords: Fitness to practice, professional suitability, student conduct, interpreter education

  1. Turn-taking and repair – Problems with FLOW in intercultural communication

Stephanie Kent, Eileen Forestal, and Cynthia Napier                                                          61
What would interpreting be like if we embraced and valued interruptions rather than judging them as negative disruptions to flow? Conversation analysis yields specific insights about the dynamics of turn-taking (when the same language is used by all) and also about when, how, and by whom repairs can be initiated (also based on interaction in the same language). In this dialogue between two Deaf and one Hearing interpreter-researcher/practitioners, these functionalist analyses in the homolingual (same language) mode are combined with a critical analysis of power from the field of translation studies. Lawrence Venuti’s concept of foreignization (from cultural studies) is introduced as an opposite paradigm to the popular linguistic paradigm of fluency. The implications of exploring problems of flow from another paradigm are suggested as a productive path for improving the quality of interpreting for everyone.

  1. Essential elements for energizing interpreter education through context-based learning

Melissa Smith                                                                                                             62
The complexity of interpreting work is not solely a result of the challenge of bridging languages and cultures. Although these two areas are in themselves multi-faceted, there are a myriad of contextual, situational, and human factors that further complicate interpreter-medicated interactions. In this workshop, specific examples of actual situations that interpreters encountered while working in public school classrooms will be described and used to prompt discussion on how similar situations are likely to be encountered by interpreters working in other settings. Participants will then be asked to brainstorm tips and strategies for more successfully navigating potentially challenging yet predictable circumstances likely to be encountered by working interpreters. The presenter will provide insights and ideas designed to lead students toward deeper understandings and develop more effective tools for creating positive change when faced with sets of circumstances that they may initially find challenging to successfully navigate.

  1. Patterns of practice: Current investigations in educational interpreting

Leilani Johnson, Susan Brown, Marty M. Taylor, and Natalie Austin                                   63;
The U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, awarded a grant (H325K100234: 2010-2104) to the University of Northern Colorado-DO IT Center focused on improving the services of educational interpreters in K-12 settings. One aspect of the award was designed to identify and describe patterns that exist within the work of educational interpreters. As a result, a multi-step, multi-year, national project was undertaken. The overarching goal of the investigation was to better understand the day-to-day practices of educational interpreters in order to better define and implement effective pre- and in-service curricula to prepare and support these service providers as highly qualified members of the educational team. The preliminary findings of two of four significant explorations into the work-world of educational interpreters are presented in this paper – Study 1: National Survey of Educational Interpreters and Study 2: National Summit on Educational Interpreting.
Keywords: Educational interpreting, K-12 interpreters, patterns of practice, sign language, deaf, hard of hearing, children

  1. Requiring a capstone paper: How to make it a successful experience

Christine Monikowski                                                                                                  73
This presentation will demonstrate how to assign smaller more manageable “steps” that will lead to a completed paper and a successful experience for the student, as well as creation of a poster for a college-wide presentation. Those attending will be expected to participate in small/large group discussions, analyzing a variety of traditional approaches to the task. The goal is to leave with a clear understanding of how to establish a comparable course or to re-vamp an existing course, to make it a success for both the instructor and the students, and to streamline a fundamental piece of our students’ educational experience.

  1. Deaf interpreter educators: An expanding field

Kevin Taylor and Bradley Dale                                                                                       74;
In the past few years with the recent emergence of the number of Deaf people getting their Master’s degrees specializing in ASL or Interpreting, the interest in teaching in the interpreting field has grown as well. The number of Certified Deaf Interpreters has grown as well. This workshop is designed to help guide those who are interested in teaching interpreting, but are not sure where to start. We will share our experience in teaching interpreting courses as well how our interpreting programs are structured. For those who want to be involved in interpreting programs, this workshop will give suggested guidelines and resources needed to prepare for teaching interpreting courses.

  1. Nourishing our roots

Amy Williamson                                                                                                         79
In this session, research findings from a survey of deaf parented interpreters will be shared. Through the survey findings, participants will learn who deaf parented interpreters are, how they entered the field, and what backgrounds they bring with them. With this backdrop, participants will reflect on personal experiences in educating students from deaf parented families and explore curriculum elements found within their own programs that contribute or hinder the learning experiences of deaf parented interpreters. By looking critically at the experiences of deaf parented interpreters, participants will be able to glean insight into what a bilingual interpreter education can look like when students begin their education with proficiency in a language pair.

  1. The more we change, the more we stay the same: Examining conflict in interpreting and the implications for interpreter education 80

Paula Gajewski Mickelson and Matthew O’Hara;
The complex and personal nature of the work ASL/English interpreters do can be challenged by differences. One way to understand conflict in our profession is by analyzing complaints filed against interpreters within the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID) Ethical Practices System (EPS). In 2008, Paula Gajewski Mickelson completed an analysis of complaints filed against interpreters within the EPS using conflict theory, the RID Code of Ethics, and the NAD-RID Code of Professional Conduct as a theoretical frame. The 2008 study identified patterns and themes within a sample of complaints filed from 1999–2005. In 2014, a similar review was conducted on data from 2006–2013. This paper will provide a data comparison, highlighting the similarities and differences found in the two data sets. Insights from this study will be offered in ways that can inform teaching strategies, not only for students in interpreter education programs, but also for professional development activities for working interpreters.
Keywords: Ethics, conflict resolution

  1. Interpreting in the zone: The implications of two studies for interpreter education

Jack Hoza                                                                                                                  107
This paper highlights some of the features that enable interpreters to interpret “in the zone,” which is a peak experience that happens when professionals are completely absorbed in their work and are performing at their best, where their skills and judgment rise to the challenges before them. The paper primarily focuses on three major findings from two qualitative studies conducted by the author: 1) a national survey of certified interpreters (n=223), and 2) a study that involved videotaping novice and experienced interpreters interpreting the same interactive text and interviewing the interpreters afterwards (n=12). Each of these three findings has implications in terms of priorities in interpreter education and how interpreting is taught or enhanced. First, interpreters of varying skill and experience can have an in-the-zone experience, and this kind of experience can be nurtured and can serve as the foundation for further development as an interpreter. Second, the unconscious, as well as the conscious, plays a crucial role in the in-the-zone experience, and understanding this fact can enhance one’s interpreting work. Third, there are two different kinds of expertise, and it behooves interpreter educators to appreciate this difference and to understand the kind of expertise they are advancing in their work with student interpreters and professional interpreters.
Keywords: Interpretation, in the zone, qualitative research, interpreter education, the conscious, the unconscious, types of expertise, novice, expert

  1. ASLTA Forum

Keith Cagle                                                                                                               118
 The ASLTA forum will provide an overview of ASLTA as a professional organization for ASL teachers. It will discuss several programs under the auspice of ASLTA: ASL Honor Society, evaluation and certification, and chapters. Afterward the participants in an audience will have an opportunity to ask some questions. Qualified ASL teachers are the foundation of many successful interpreting programs with ASL courses.

  1. Interpreting education for tomorrow

Cathy Cogen and Dennis Cokely                                                                                   119;
Break out your crystal ball and join us for a conversation about the future of interpreting education! The National Interpreter Education Center (NIEC) has undertaken a forward-looking investigation with the goal of anticipating and planning for new challenges in interpreting education over the next decade. Carried out through surveys, interviews, and focus group sessions with Deaf community leaders, interpreters, interpreting educators, vocational rehabilitation professionals, and other key stakeholders, this effort seeks to understand the impact of changing demographics and technological innovation on the future interpreting needs of deaf children, youth, adults, and the aged. From there we consider possible implications of observable trends for preparation and credentialing of the next generation of interpreters. Come and share your own observations and the strategies your program might employ in teaching tomorrow’s interpreting students.

  1. Effective interpreter feedback and instruction using

Andrea Smith and Sam Harris                                                                                       120

New Internet-based technologies are solving many of the traditional challenges to effective instructor observation in interpreter training. The authors review how cloud-based video feedback and critique via the GoREACT software-as-a-service application can be used to improve student success, skill acquisition and development, including stimulus media synchronization and time-coded capture of written and video comments as part of ASL interpreter training curricula. Andrea Smith discusses how the use of GoREACT has helped the Interpreter Training Program at the University of South Florida improve the effectiveness of course instruction with minimal impact on the departmental budget. The use of web-based tools is providing a superior experience for tech savvy students over recordings on physical media, which are inherently bereft of any method for native feedback. This adoption of new technologies is allowing training programs to remain competitive and relevant. Specific improvements related to time-coded feedback and commentary between students and instructors and its incorporation are discussed.

Keywords: American Sign Language, education, interpreter training, video software, video feedback, software-as-a-Service, SaaS, improved student outcomes, GoREACT

  1. The essence of complexity lies in the individual elements

Jonas Carlsson                                                                                                           126
This paper aims to point out the pedagogical importance of making the complex interpreting process comprehensible to interpreter students when developing their interpreting skills. It suggests that Daniel Gile´s (2009) effort model can be used as a vehicle for this purpose. This theoretical framework will enhance the development of a common understanding of interpretation among students and educators. By scrutinizing the effort areas the students will be provided tools for understanding, analyzing, and practicing the individual elements of which the interpreting process consists. By using this approach consciously developed automatizations can be created making it possible to direct energy to areas of the interpreting process that cannot be automatized. The paper also suggests the above mentioned approach can be applied to in-service training and professional development. Parallels are also drawn to the world of sports where the mastery of individual elements of performance can be the difference between victory and defeat.
Keywords: Interpreting process, The effort model, teaching sign language interpreting, interpreter education, n-service training, professional development

  1. Going forward, is interpreting a viable career?

Theresa Smith                                                                                                           137
Historically, as a field of interpreter educators, we have addressed how best to teach the language and skills necessary to perform well as interpreters in various venues and how to select and support students who will do well in our programs. This session, will take a different tack, to look at the element of compensation (financial and other) for those working in the field. Comparing the current compensation paid for Seattle interpreters, public school teachers and Registered Nurses, we find interpreters are compensated at a rate of 59% and 61% respectively. “What,” we must ask, “keeps interpreters in the field today, and what would need to change in order to assure the field of interpreting will, going forward, draw and retain intelligent, competent and responsible practitioners? Given the current fiscal environment, how sustainable are the present conditions?” and “What are the implications for us as educators?”

  1. CCIE Forum

Len Robertson, Phyllis Wilcox, Elisa Maroney, and Keith Cagle                                        138
The Commission on Collegiate Interpreter Education (CCIE) has been the accrediting body for Interpreter Education Programs since 2006.  The role of CCIE has become more significant as students become more savvy and rigorous in their pursuit of excellence in the interpreter education programs they select. While accrediting programs is CCIE’s primary goal, another equally important charge is “the development and revision of interpreter education standards.”  Over the last 8 years, as CCIE has been actively involved in reviewing programs and committee work, gaining feedback from programs, raters, commissioners, and other stakeholders, the standards have been revised. The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the significance of accreditation and how it impacts our profession, IEP programs, and students, to highlight CCIE accredited programs, update the CIT membership on CCIE’s activities, and to discuss the current standards and the process used in their revision.

Friday, October 31, 2014

  1. Teaching ASL in the flipped classroom

Greta Knigga-Daugherty                                                                                               139
 More and more instructors are encouraged to use the flipped classroom. However, there seems to be some confusion as to what it is and how it can benefit ASL instruction. This paper will provide an introduction to the flipped classroom model along with the four pillars (features) of the flipped classroom as well as explain the advantages and challenges of incorporating it in the ASL curriculum. In addition, this paper will provide examples of teaching ASL in the flipped classroom along with guidelines of how to teach ASL in the flipped classroom.
Keywords: Flipped classroom, ASL, ASL education

  1. Roots: Engaging the Deaf community as language mentors

Linda Kolb Bozeman and Max Williamson                                                                     149;
Engaging deaf individuals rooted in the community to serve as language models and mentors to P-12 interpreters working in school districts located in rural/isolated districts was the focus of a pilot program to establish a pool of Deaf language mentors and cultural liaisons across underserved rural areas in our state. An overview of the program, recruitment activities and pay-it-forward stipends, training of first time mentors and perspectives of the mentor-in-training and lead mentor will be shared along with the challenges presented in this environment.

  1. Breaking the mold of tokenism: Interpreter education program–community alliances through service learning

Eileen Forestal and Sharry Shaw                                                                                   157;
This presentation addresses the role interpreter education programs play in emphasizing fundamental community values in their curricula. Presenters will discuss ‘breaking the mold of tokenism’ as it relates to re-centering the Deaf community within interpreter education programs and instilling a mindset of ‘interpreter-as-ally’ in future practitioners. We will explore the concept of ‘boundary work’ with interpreting students and provide strategies for programs and individuals to partner with the Deaf community to reach its goals. Participants in this session will learn how to prepare students for mapping the local Deaf community’s assets as a form of strength-based assessment and joining forces with community partners to solve problems or meet needs that the community deems are valid. The presentation stresses key concepts of oppression and ‘dysconscious audism’ that must be avoided in community-interpreter alliances where the goal is to empower and build trust with community partners.

  1. The contribution of Deaf interpreters to GATEKEEPING within the interpreting profession: Reconnecting with our roots 158

Carla M. Mathers and Anna Witter-Merithew;
The concept of gatekeeping within the interpreting profession has been mourned as the loss of a critical component in ensuring that practitioners enter the field by way of stakeholder induction. Historically, gatekeeping also served as a protective mechanism to ensure that the interpreters had a significant connection to the community. With the advent of legislation and interpreter education programs, the Deaf community’s role in the selection of candidates to enter the field has diminished. We propose that one way in which the role of gatekeeping is currently evident is through the work of Deaf interpreters. This paper will provide an overview of data collected from the analysis of Deaf-hearing team interpretations. The data suggests that Deaf interpreters intervene in the interpreting process more frequently than their hearing counterparts in a number of ways. Ultimately, contributing to the gatekeeping function is an example of the unique role served by Deaf interpreters.
Keywords: Deaf Interpreters, gatekeepers

Saturday, November 1, 2014

  1. Tech Talk: Navigating the CIT website

Jessica Bentley-Sassaman, Doug Bowen, Kimberly Hale, and Wink Smith                           174
This presentation is focused on assisting members navigate the CIT website as well as the benefits to the membership. During this tech-talk workshop, participants will learn how to access and contribute to the members’ only section, the International Journal of Interpreter Education, the membership directory, and more. CIT’s website has a lot to offer its members and we want to make sure you have access to the videos, journals, and member benefits. The presenters will also take suggestions on how to improve the CIT website and functionality.

  1. Proficiency and depiction in ASL

Mary Thumann                                                                                                          175
In my presentation given at CIT, 2014, I describe and discuss a pilot study on depiction and proficiency in American Sign Language (ASL), Examining the Use of Depiction across American Sign Language Proficiency Interview Assessment Levels. This paper provides an overview of depiction and depiction types, and a description of a pilot study on depiction and proficiency in ASL. Depiction refers to “the ability to visually represent semantic components” (Dudis, 2007, p. 1) and is essential in ASL. Research has shown an average of 20 instances of depiction per minute in ASL as generated by native Deaf signers (Thumann, 2010). The high occurrence of depiction suggests that to achieve a higher level of competence in ASL it is necessary to incorporate depiction of varying types in language use. By comparing types and frequency of depiction usage at different levels of proficiency on the American Sign Language Proficiency Interview (ASLPI), we can gain insight about the type and occurrence of depiction by native signers with higher levels of proficiency and identify gaps and problems with producing depiction by those at lower levels of proficiency.
Keywords: depiction, American Sign Language, ASL proficiency

  1. Interpreting in Spanish-influenced settings: Preparing the next generation of trilingual interpreters

Arlene Narvaez and Edwin Cancel                                                                                  186
Both the demand for trilingual (ASL/Spanish/English) interpreter services and the supply of interpreters working in Spanish influenced settings is on the rise. However, training materials and opportunities struggle to keep up.  This interactive session will start with an overview and historical look at the field of the trilingual interpreting movement. It will include discussion on competencies and skills identified in current research, identify instructor qualifications, demonstrate use of tools currently available, and highlight the need for pre-service interpreters to gain exposure before practice. Discussion will focus on the complexity of trilingual interpreter work and the competencies and skills required. Emphasis will be on targeting potential trilingual interpreters engaged in interpreter preparation programs.

  1. Field induction: Creating the essential elements for building competence in specialized settings

Anna Witter-Merithew, Richard Laurion, Patty Gordon, and Carla M. Mathers                      187;;;
Studies related to supervised induction in practice professions have shown to be an important contribution in reducing the turnover of newly entering practitioners and supporting the acquisition of coping skills (Ingersoll & Smith, 2004; Seago, 2006; Smith & Ingersoll, 2003; Wong, 2004). Supervision in induction programs is central to ensuring supportive communication, collaboration with others, engagement in planning, networking, and access to resources (Arends & Rigazio-DiGilio, 2000; Feiman-Nemser, Schwille, Carver, & Yusko, 1999; Fideler & Haselkorn, 1999). The National Consortium of Interpreter Education Centers (NCIEC) has developed supervised induction programs to further the in-service training continuum for individuals seeking to specialize in healthcare and legal interpreting.  The authors argue that supervised induction offers support and direction for practitioners seeking specialized standing.  This paper will provide an overview of the two induction programs currently being implemented by the NCIEC in selected locations, and describe the structure, goals and processes associated with each.
Keywords: Supervised induction, system-thinking, relational autonomy

  1. The essence of our future: Research studies in interpretation from Gallaudet’s doctoral students

Joy Marks, Laura Maddux, and Tamar Nelson                                                                 202
This paper is a brief description of three research studies from Doctoral students at Gallaudet University’s Department of Interpretation. Joy Marks examined accredited ASL/English bachelor degree programs to determine if cognitive skills are a component of their admissions screening. The study shows that only one program clearly demonstrated cognitive skills as a part of its screening. Laura Maddux conducted a study about a specific aspect of interactive discourse (Metzger 1999). A quasi-experimental design with a pretest/instruction/posttest, the results showed an increase in the specific aspect of interactive discourse used by the students post-instruction. Tamar Nelson investigated preparation methods used by two participants who interpreted two 10-minute formal conference lectures from English into ASL, with no preparation time, and with twenty minutes of preparation time. The analysis suggests that the interpretations for which the interpreters prepared had fewer affected propositions and that some preparation methods may work better than others.
Keywords: Admission screening, cognition, teaching methods, preparation

  1. ASL essays – improving ASL thinking and performance for millennials, elements and essentials

Steven Collins and Christopher Stone                                                                            217;
With limited opportunities for millennials to engage in traditional activities such as attending Deaf clubs, the training and development of recorded ASL genre (ASLr) supports their ability to engage with a variety of Deaf people in a variety of different contexts. This also enables learners to effectively engage in VLOGs and other virtual media—a staple of 21st century Deaf lives.
This presentation will demonstrate the use of ASL essays within Gallaudet’s BAI and MAI programs. We will give examples of a style sheet for an ASL essay, an example of a ‘how-to’ supporting students in recording their ASL essays and providing ASL feedback to develop their knowledge and performance of ASLr amongst other registers (see Stone, 2011).

  1. Bridging the gap between ASL and interpreter education programs

Amy June Rowley and Marika Kovacs-Houlihan                                                              218;
A study was conducted on four-year ASL Programs where students can earn a degree in ASL at three institutions. The study consisted of a document review and interviews to determine similarities and differences between curriculum design and program implementation. Each of the programs utilized a different model for students to progress through their ASL academic career. However a lot of curriculum requirements between the programs were very similar. Similarities and differences are identified in this paper as well as bridging the gap between ASL Education and Interpreter Education which means making sure students graduate meeting expectations to enter Interpreter Education programs.   A result of the study identified conflicts between existing ASL and Interpreting Programs and a model is presented to prevent this conflict when implementing ASL Studies programs.

  1. Creating Deaf hearts: Using popular education with interpreting students

Marlene Elliott, Erin Finton, and Wyatte Hall                                                                 219;;
 Popular Education is a “series of principles that have their roots in the theories of Brazilian educator Paulo Freire” (Zerkel, 2001, p. 6). It is both a philosophy and methodology in which education is a collective effort and can serve as a model to create Deaf hearts in interpreting students that commonly come from an individualistic cultural background. It can provide an ongoing experience of a collectivist cultural lens, preparing interpreters to share decision-making with deaf people, who are the experts in their life experiences, during the interpreting process.  It is proposed that Popular Education can be used for effective instruction in Interpreter Training Programs, in contrast to the pitfalls of the traditional, and proprietary, approaches to learning. Popular education has the ability to foster more collaborative partnerships between ASL interpreters and deaf people by normalizing and internalizing Deaf cultural behaviors throughout the training process.
Keywords: Deaf, popular education, American Sign Language, interpreting education, social justice, Freire

  1. Inclusive programs: LGBTQI interpreting students and consumers

Tamar Jackson Nelson                                                                                                 232
The goal of this paper is to address critical issues of gender identities and sexual orientations within American society and specifically, in relation to ASL-English interpreter education and the provision of interpreting services. This study examines interview responses from people who identify as Deaf, deaf or Hard-of-Hearing (D/HH) and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer/Questioning, and/or Intersex (LGBTQI) about their preferred linguistic terms for identity.
Participants analyzed LGBTQI terminology and discussed how decisions about vocabulary choices could impact the outcome of the target language message. Results demonstrate that linguistic choices within the community vary and that they are important for consumers of interpreting services. This paper provides recommendations for practitioners and educators to assess their interpreting and teaching practices regarding language use surrounding marginalized communities.
Keywords: Gender binary, heteronormativity, gender identity, gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender

  1. The BIG essential we all love to hate: Teaching fingerspelled word recognition. Let’s learn to love it!

Carol Patrie                                                                                                               236
Many errors in ASL-to-English interpretation are due to weaknesses in comprehending lexical items in ASL including fingerspelled word recognition (Taylor, 2002). This difficulty leads to misunderstanding and frustration and can delay students from developing entry level interpreting skills. Each year interpreter education programs graduate students who have deficiencies in reading fingerspelled words. This gap in an essential aspect of ASL comprehension leads to anxiety, wasted energy, and poor interpreting performance. Interpreter educators are often at a loss as to how to teach this essential aspect of ASL comprehension. This presentation stresses the importance of providing students with accurate, researched based information that reliably leads to improved fingerspelled word recognition through a combination of information, practice, and application, all carefully integrated and designed to lead to success in fingerspelled word recognition.

  1. The teaming model and transparency for Deaf and hearing team interpreters: Who owns the interpretation?

Eileen Forestal and Stephanie Clark                                                                               237;
As Deaf interpreters, we have been utilizing team processes that allow dialogues within teams of Deaf, Deaf-parented, and hearing interpreters in specific settings, such as medical, mental health, and legal venues, for the past several years. The team processes includes interactive dialogues, also known as the open process model, which seem to enable transparency for the consumers/stakeholders. The open process model also enables rapport with all parties, especially Deaf consumers. We will make a case that there is a need to move away from current teaming practices that are not transparent and thereby closed to the stakeholders. Perspectives from our empirical observations, research, and a preliminary study with Deaf interpreters and hearing or Deaf-parented interpreters in interviews, using this process as opposed to the closed process model, will be discussed. Research-based examples will demonstrate the open process model as an effective practice for teams in specific settings.

  1. Fostering and supporting a bi-cultural leadership environment

Marty Taylor                                                                                                             238
Leadership is deliberate and conscious. It includes civility, fairness, self-control, emotional intelligence, and social intelligence. In interpreting, leadership is an essential practice, including: (1) leading oneself, (2) leading individuals, (3) leading groups, and (4) leading organizations, communities, and societies. Interpreters at the most fundamental level must lead themselves. This presentation will provide application of the findings of a qualitative research study examining leadership from the perspectives of 50 Deaf leaders and interpreter leaders from Canada and the United States. Implications and applications will be discussed in terms of providing learning environments that are conducive to effective leadership practices. Application of the most frequently reported themes among the research participants, respect and communication, will be highlighted. In addition, strategies will be offered to provide learning environments to incorporate practice related to the five themes Deaf leaders and interpreter leaders reported when asked about the differences and similarities between each group.

  1. Strong voicer: Deaf individuals vs. interpreter perspectives

Julie A. White and Christine Multra Kraft                                                                       239;
When interpreter agencies or Deaf consumers request a ‘strong voicer,’ what is really being requested? An interpreter with a good English vocabulary base and high register discourse ability? Or an interpreter who will not interrupt the Deaf speaker to ask for clarification? This pilot project led by a Deaf-hearing team investigates this fundamental and well-used term by interviewing Deaf individuals and interpreters. The pragmatic choices of the interpreter – in the usage of nonmanual markers while backchannelling, lexical choices in discourse regulators, and posing questions/clarifications all combine to create an ‘accent’ that impacts the total impression of a ‘good’ vs. ‘poor’ voicer regardless of actual voicing performance. “Fluency is not a cognitive operation in and of itself but, rather, a feeling of ease associated with a cognitive operation” (Oppenheimer, 2008, p. 237). Perception vs. performance is explored in this analysis of contrastive factors from Deaf people and signed language interpreters to produce a clearer connection between projected, perceived, and actual voicing abilities.
Keywords: Deaf-hearing interpreting, interpreting, accent, believability, trust, credible, relationship

  1. Growing our roots in a new ground: Deepening our social consciousness

Joseph Hill                                                                                                                253